Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Facebooks Overvaluation Essay - 1100 Words

Facebooks Overvaluation (Essay Sample) Content: Institution Examining Facebook's Stock Valuation by Name Date Lecturer's Name and Course Number Examining Facebook's ValuationIntroductionFacebook is a social networking incorporation that started back in 2004 thanks to Mark Zuckerberg, the co-founder. The social network grew from a small point and gradually rose to being the second ranked after Google. In May 2012 it held its initial public offering (IPO) with the offering seen as the biggest ever in the internet portfolio. The market capitalisation was around $90Bn USD during the IPO period. After this offering, it rose tremendously to around $140Bn and a share price of $55USD which was initially at $35. Although Facebook's profits lowered after the IPO, it still had grounds to play safe that is it still remained of great value. How then did it ensure its high valuation on the stock market despite low profits? This essay examines this scenario.BodyLet's start by looking at its market transaction. Ma rket transaction method (MTM) is a business stock method that bases on the recent private stock sale transactions. Facebook relied on this method between its first quarter of 2011 and first quarter of 2012. During this period, there was a high increase in sales of third party private shares on Facebook. This made Facebook to assign a 50% weighting in its fair-market indexing. The question here is, how did these private transactions carried out and how were their prices ascertained?Most of the private transactions of Facebook shares were done without any warning and announcement. Big shareholders and organisations negotiated and agreed on terms secretly without the knowhow of the public. Other private transactions were done via the internet that is online through second market and sharepost. It is only the media that came in and started reporting about the secondary market transactions. Now, assuming Facebook trades at US$44 a share on Secondmarket and US$38 on larger blocks of share s, there's great profit!!Another factor highly regarded when it comes to Facebook's overvaluation at the stock exchange market is the intangible assets. Intangible assets are the identifiable non-monetary assets that cannot be seen, touched or physically measured. They include assets like cash, working capital and property. Total liabilities are then lessened from the sum total of these assets giving the total stockholder equity. Today, Facebook has a stockholder equity that amounts over USD5 billion and at least USD8 billion of available credit. To add on this, the company bought more than 1,300 patents from Microsoft and IBM. However, there was no exact amount of money transacted. To better itself, Facebook also acquired small firms and companies who were in need of advertising on their site.Illiquidity also leads to great achievement in the business. If we look at Facebook's profile on the SecondMarket, we note that its market capitalization rose drastically from USD5 billion to USD12 billion during the last Q4-2009. Well, this proves to be right, Facebook's value had risen by a value of USD8 billion when a single person or firm paid USD4 million for 100,000 shares.The future of Facebook is seen to be targeting even a larger audience by several advancements. Several developments have been made by Facebook starting from the mobile app install Ad was launched letting developers promote their apps in the Facebook news feed Ad-links connecting direct to download pages in the Apple App Store and Google-Play. Periodically, it's updating its mobile SDKs for iOS and Android to make it easier for apps to share content to Facebook hence enabling developers grow. Presently, Facebook continues to sign people quickly all over the world. Emerging markets of developing and third world countries for instance China, Brazil, India are where Facebook is reaping most of its growth because of high population growth.ConclusionIt can be seen that Facebook had made several advance s to its valuations prior to its IPO. Facebook raised its IPO price again on the assumption that their limited public offering had happened and that a public market for their first class common stock had been created and therefore exempted any marketability or liquidity discount. Intangible assets acquired by Facebook also contributed much to its worthiness. From its IPO in 2012, it has seen an inevitable increase in its shares as more people and institutions are turning to using it. Big firms are paying for their Ads and hence profitability to Facebook. Today, Facebook is ranked the second in the world before Google; the largest and richest of all.

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Baylor College of Medicine Secondary Application Essay Tips [2019 - 2020]

Given the principles for BCM, I recommend covering your clinical, research and community experience in their secondary application essays. They place special emphasis on recruiting students from diverse backgrounds and from ethnicities that are underrepresented in medicine. Highlight your personal connections, volunteer work, and leadership roles in medically underserved communities. Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 secondary application essay questions Baylor College of Medicine essay #1 If you have taken a gap year(s), please explain what you have been, or will be, doing since graduating from your undergrad institution. (2,000 characters) If this question applies to you, share everything that you have been doing or plan to be doing during this time. It’s better to have too many than not enough activities. You can include any progress you have made in your professional life as well as in hobbies. Use all the space allowed. Obviously, it will help if you have continued your clinical work and community service, but don’t neglect to mention any achievements in other areas of your life. It’s better to be a well-rounded applicant with lots of diverse interests than focused only on medicine. If you run out of space because you are so busy during your gap year(s), then choose those activities that show achievement and a breadth of experience. Baylor College of Medicine essay #2 Is becoming a physician a second career for you? If so, what was your first career choice? (2,000 characters) Be honest in responding to this question. You should detail all the reasons why you chose your first career path, and mention any and all accomplishments that you achieved in this field. There is no need to â€Å"bash† or write about the negative side of this career to explain why you left it. Instead, consider pivoting to explain how and why your background in this area will give you a unique perspective in medicine. How will your original career benefit your approach to medicine? Baylor College of Medicine essay #3 (Required) Indicate any special experiences, unusual factors or other information you feel would be helpful in evaluating you, including, but not limited to, education, employment, extracurricular activities, prevailing over adversity. You may expand upon but not repeat AMCAS application information. (2,000 characters.) Using a timeline you have created of your life that includes all significant events and/or an updated copy of your resume or CV, check off the items you have already covered in your primary application. Create a list from the remaining items that you have not covered which are related to clinical, research, work, or leadership in community service. Are there any items that relate to how you have overcome adversity? Strategically selecting the activities or events that will reveal more about you as a person, create an outline using this short list. Free-write to cover as much detail as you can from your outline. After taking a break, edit the material to ensure you have a clear introductory sentence, solid body with explanations, and a concise conclusion that sums up your experiences. If you would like professional guidance with your Baylor College of Medicine application materials, check out Accepted’s Medical School Admissions Consulting and Editing Services, which include advising, editing, and interview coaching for Baylors application materials. hbspt.cta.load(58291, '78bba0aa-d22d-4479-949c-c6eae84b059a', {}); Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 application timeline AMCAS Application Due November 1, 2019 Supplemental Application Due MD/PhD: November 1, 2019 MD only: December 1, 2019 Interviews Take Place August 2019 February 2020 ***Disclaimer: Information is subject to change. Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and deadlines.*** Alicia McNease Nimonkar worked for 5 years as the Student Advisor Director at the UC Davis School of Medicine's postbac program where she both evaluated applications and advised students applying successfully to med school and other health professional programs. She has served Accepted's clients since 2012 with roughly a 90% success rate. She has a Master of Arts in Composition and Rhetoric as well as Literature.  Want Alicia to help you get Accepted? Click here to get in touch! Related Resources: †¢ 5 Fatal Flaws to Avoid in Your Med School and Secondary Essays, a free guide †¢ School-Specific Med Secondary Essay Tips †¢ How to Write About Overcoming Challenges Without Sounding Like a Whiner Baylor College of Medicine Secondary Application Essay Tips [2019 - 2020] Given the principles for BCM, I recommend covering your clinical, research and community experience in their secondary application essays. They place special emphasis on recruiting students from diverse backgrounds and from ethnicities that are underrepresented in medicine. Highlight your personal connections, volunteer work, and leadership roles in medically underserved communities. Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 secondary application essay questions Baylor College of Medicine essay #1 If you have taken a gap year(s), please explain what you have been, or will be, doing since graduating from your undergrad institution. (2,000 characters) If this question applies to you, share everything that you have been doing or plan to be doing during this time. It’s better to have too many than not enough activities. You can include any progress you have made in your professional life as well as in hobbies. Use all the space allowed. Obviously, it will help if you have continued your clinical work and community service, but don’t neglect to mention any achievements in other areas of your life. It’s better to be a well-rounded applicant with lots of diverse interests than focused only on medicine. If you run out of space because you are so busy during your gap year(s), then choose those activities that show achievement and a breadth of experience. Baylor College of Medicine essay #2 Is becoming a physician a second career for you? If so, what was your first career choice? (2,000 characters) Be honest in responding to this question. You should detail all the reasons why you chose your first career path, and mention any and all accomplishments that you achieved in this field. There is no need to â€Å"bash† or write about the negative side of this career to explain why you left it. Instead, consider pivoting to explain how and why your background in this area will give you a unique perspective in medicine. How will your original career benefit your approach to medicine? Baylor College of Medicine essay #3 (Required) Indicate any special experiences, unusual factors or other information you feel would be helpful in evaluating you, including, but not limited to, education, employment, extracurricular activities, prevailing over adversity. You may expand upon but not repeat AMCAS application information. (2,000 characters.) Using a timeline you have created of your life that includes all significant events and/or an updated copy of your resume or CV, check off the items you have already covered in your primary application. Create a list from the remaining items that you have not covered which are related to clinical, research, work, or leadership in community service. Are there any items that relate to how you have overcome adversity? Strategically selecting the activities or events that will reveal more about you as a person, create an outline using this short list. Free-write to cover as much detail as you can from your outline. After taking a break, edit the material to ensure you have a clear introductory sentence, solid body with explanations, and a concise conclusion that sums up your experiences. If you would like professional guidance with your Baylor College of Medicine application materials, check out Accepted’s Medical School Admissions Consulting and Editing Services, which include advising, editing, and interview coaching for Baylors application materials. hbspt.cta.load(58291, '78bba0aa-d22d-4479-949c-c6eae84b059a', {}); Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 application timeline AMCAS Application Due November 1, 2019 Supplemental Application Due MD/PhD: November 1, 2019 MD only: December 1, 2019 Interviews Take Place August 2019 February 2020 ***Disclaimer: Information is subject to change. Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and deadlines.*** Alicia McNease Nimonkar worked for 5 years as the Student Advisor Director at the UC Davis School of Medicine's postbac program where she both evaluated applications and advised students applying successfully to med school and other health professional programs. She has served Accepted's clients since 2012 with roughly a 90% success rate. She has a Master of Arts in Composition and Rhetoric as well as Literature.  Want Alicia to help you get Accepted? Click here to get in touch! Related Resources: †¢ 5 Fatal Flaws to Avoid in Your Med School and Secondary Essays, a free guide †¢ School-Specific Med Secondary Essay Tips †¢ How to Write About Overcoming Challenges Without Sounding Like a Whiner Baylor College of Medicine Secondary Application Essay Tips [2019 - 2020] Given the principles for BCM, I recommend covering your clinical, research and community experience in their secondary application essays. They place special emphasis on recruiting students from diverse backgrounds and from ethnicities that are underrepresented in medicine. Highlight your personal connections, volunteer work, and leadership roles in medically underserved communities. Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 secondary application essay questions Baylor College of Medicine essay #1 If you have taken a gap year(s), please explain what you have been, or will be, doing since graduating from your undergrad institution. (2,000 characters) If this question applies to you, share everything that you have been doing or plan to be doing during this time. It’s better to have too many than not enough activities. You can include any progress you have made in your professional life as well as in hobbies. Use all the space allowed. Obviously, it will help if you have continued your clinical work and community service, but don’t neglect to mention any achievements in other areas of your life. It’s better to be a well-rounded applicant with lots of diverse interests than focused only on medicine. If you run out of space because you are so busy during your gap year(s), then choose those activities that show achievement and a breadth of experience. Baylor College of Medicine essay #2 Is becoming a physician a second career for you? If so, what was your first career choice? (2,000 characters) Be honest in responding to this question. You should detail all the reasons why you chose your first career path, and mention any and all accomplishments that you achieved in this field. There is no need to â€Å"bash† or write about the negative side of this career to explain why you left it. Instead, consider pivoting to explain how and why your background in this area will give you a unique perspective in medicine. How will your original career benefit your approach to medicine? Baylor College of Medicine essay #3 (Required) Indicate any special experiences, unusual factors or other information you feel would be helpful in evaluating you, including, but not limited to, education, employment, extracurricular activities, prevailing over adversity. You may expand upon but not repeat AMCAS application information. (2,000 characters.) Using a timeline you have created of your life that includes all significant events and/or an updated copy of your resume or CV, check off the items you have already covered in your primary application. Create a list from the remaining items that you have not covered which are related to clinical, research, work, or leadership in community service. Are there any items that relate to how you have overcome adversity? Strategically selecting the activities or events that will reveal more about you as a person, create an outline using this short list. Free-write to cover as much detail as you can from your outline. After taking a break, edit the material to ensure you have a clear introductory sentence, solid body with explanations, and a concise conclusion that sums up your experiences. If you would like professional guidance with your Baylor College of Medicine application materials, check out Accepted’s Medical School Admissions Consulting and Editing Services, which include advising, editing, and interview coaching for Baylors application materials. hbspt.cta.load(58291, '78bba0aa-d22d-4479-949c-c6eae84b059a', {}); Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 application timeline AMCAS Application Due November 1, 2019 Supplemental Application Due MD/PhD: November 1, 2019 MD only: December 1, 2019 Interviews Take Place August 2019 February 2020 ***Disclaimer: Information is subject to change. Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and deadlines.*** Alicia McNease Nimonkar worked for 5 years as the Student Advisor Director at the UC Davis School of Medicine's postbac program where she both evaluated applications and advised students applying successfully to med school and other health professional programs. She has served Accepted's clients since 2012 with roughly a 90% success rate. She has a Master of Arts in Composition and Rhetoric as well as Literature.  Want Alicia to help you get Accepted? Click here to get in touch! Related Resources: †¢ 5 Fatal Flaws to Avoid in Your Med School and Secondary Essays, a free guide †¢ School-Specific Med Secondary Essay Tips †¢ How to Write About Overcoming Challenges Without Sounding Like a Whiner Baylor College of Medicine Secondary Application Essay Tips [2019 - 2020] Given the principles for BCM, I recommend covering your clinical, research and community experience in their secondary application essays. They place special emphasis on recruiting students from diverse backgrounds and from ethnicities that are underrepresented in medicine. Highlight your personal connections, volunteer work, and leadership roles in medically underserved communities. Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 secondary application essay questions Baylor College of Medicine essay #1 If you have taken a gap year(s), please explain what you have been, or will be, doing since graduating from your undergrad institution. (2,000 characters) If this question applies to you, share everything that you have been doing or plan to be doing during this time. It’s better to have too many than not enough activities. You can include any progress you have made in your professional life as well as in hobbies. Use all the space allowed. Obviously, it will help if you have continued your clinical work and community service, but don’t neglect to mention any achievements in other areas of your life. It’s better to be a well-rounded applicant with lots of diverse interests than focused only on medicine. If you run out of space because you are so busy during your gap year(s), then choose those activities that show achievement and a breadth of experience. Baylor College of Medicine essay #2 Is becoming a physician a second career for you? If so, what was your first career choice? (2,000 characters) Be honest in responding to this question. You should detail all the reasons why you chose your first career path, and mention any and all accomplishments that you achieved in this field. There is no need to â€Å"bash† or write about the negative side of this career to explain why you left it. Instead, consider pivoting to explain how and why your background in this area will give you a unique perspective in medicine. How will your original career benefit your approach to medicine? Baylor College of Medicine essay #3 (Required) Indicate any special experiences, unusual factors or other information you feel would be helpful in evaluating you, including, but not limited to, education, employment, extracurricular activities, prevailing over adversity. You may expand upon but not repeat AMCAS application information. (2,000 characters.) Using a timeline you have created of your life that includes all significant events and/or an updated copy of your resume or CV, check off the items you have already covered in your primary application. Create a list from the remaining items that you have not covered which are related to clinical, research, work, or leadership in community service. Are there any items that relate to how you have overcome adversity? Strategically selecting the activities or events that will reveal more about you as a person, create an outline using this short list. Free-write to cover as much detail as you can from your outline. After taking a break, edit the material to ensure you have a clear introductory sentence, solid body with explanations, and a concise conclusion that sums up your experiences. If you would like professional guidance with your Baylor College of Medicine application materials, check out Accepted’s Medical School Admissions Consulting and Editing Services, which include advising, editing, and interview coaching for Baylors application materials. hbspt.cta.load(58291, '78bba0aa-d22d-4479-949c-c6eae84b059a', {}); Baylor College of Medicine 2019-20 application timeline AMCAS Application Due November 1, 2019 Supplemental Application Due MD/PhD: November 1, 2019 MD only: December 1, 2019 Interviews Take Place August 2019 February 2020 ***Disclaimer: Information is subject to change. Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and deadlines.*** Alicia McNease Nimonkar worked for 5 years as the Student Advisor Director at the UC Davis School of Medicine's postbac program where she both evaluated applications and advised students applying successfully to med school and other health professional programs. She has served Accepted's clients since 2012 with roughly a 90% success rate. She has a Master of Arts in Composition and Rhetoric as well as Literature.  Want Alicia to help you get Accepted? Click here to get in touch! Related Resources: †¢ 5 Fatal Flaws to Avoid in Your Med School and Secondary Essays, a free guide †¢ School-Specific Med Secondary Essay Tips †¢ How to Write About Overcoming Challenges Without Sounding Like a Whiner

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Miller And Modigliani Capital Structure Irrelevance Theorem Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 20 Words: 6090 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Contrary to Modigliani and Miller (1958, MM hereafter), Capital Structure is not irrelevant when we consider a firm with a dividend payout policy. This article extends the MM capital structure theorem by relaxing the full payout assumption and introducing retention policy. The theoretical contribution shows that it is possible to verify the theorem when we suppose an investor who exchanges his initial holding for another portfolio composed of consumption and investment. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Miller And Modigliani Capital Structure Irrelevance Theorem Finance Essay" essay for you Create order The empirical analysis of this new approach is based on a data set of the USA Electric Utilities and Oil companies for the period 1990-1998. The results show that the relationships between leverage and firm value are significantly affected by the firms payout ratio. 1. Introduction Miller and Modiglianis (1958) irrelevance theorem is one of the important and puzzling issues in modern corporate finance theory [1], which has challenged the traditional view[2], that an optimum leverage exists. The main source of the puzzle stems from the fact that financial research dont seem to explain the firm financing behaviour as we attempt to reconcile the MM theory with the evidence(Myers 1984, Gordon1994, Rajan and Zingales1995). The MM theorem(proposition I) has shown that under a perfect market hypothesis the market value of any firm is independent of its capital structure (Stulz2006). This fundamental proposition explicitly indicates that the aptitude of investors to engage in personal or homemade leverage is sufficient to ensure that corporate leverage in itself cannot modify the total market value of the firm [3]. In other words, the theorem provides conditions under which arbitrage by individuals keeps the value of the firm depend only on cash flow generated by the investment policy. Literature about the validity of the MM-proposition is discussed about whether investors can really accomplish the required conditions of the arbitrage method without changing the overall value of the company. In this context, many authors have shown the inadequacy of the theorem when variables that deal with the real world are introduced. Following the seminal paper of MM (1958), most theories have been put forward in corporate finance to reconcile the shortcomings of the irrelevance theorem with variables that explain the firms choice of capital structure. According to the previous debate, criticism against this theorem can be grouped in two types of arguments: on the one hand, there are papers which deal with the limitations of the arbitrage conditions; on the other hand, there are studies which analyze the effect of market imperfections on the firms choice of capital structure. Despite the importance of these interventions, we note that all of the limitati ons deal with the explicit assumptions used by MM, but none deals with the critiques of the MMs implicit assumptions. More recently, DeAngelo and DeAngelo (2006, DD hereafter) have challenged MMs irrelevance dividend policy. Dealing with this alternative of earnings as fully distributed, these authors have showed the irrelevance of the MM dividend irrelevance theorem when MMs assumptions are relaxed to allow retention. As DeAngelo and DeAngelo(2006, page 294) wrote When MMs assumptions are modified to allow retention with the NPV of Investment policy fixed, a firm can reduce its value by paying out less than the full present value of FCF, and so Payout policy matters and Investment policy is not the sole determinant of value . According to DD(2006), the MMs irrelevance theorem forces firms to choose only among dividend policies that distribute the full present value of free cash flow(FCF) to shareholders. Distributions below the totality of earnings are ruled out by the implicit hy pothesis. Dealing with this alternative of fully-distributed earnings, MM(1958) used the same hypothesis in the development of the irrelevance of capital structure.. As pointed by the authors ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦.as will become clear later, as long as management is presumed to be acting in the best interests of the stockholders, retained earnings can be regarded as equivalent to a fully subscribed, pre-emptive issue of common stock. Hence, for present purposes, the division of the stream between cash dividends and retained earnings in any period is a mere detail. MM, 1958 p266. However, MM(1958) failed to recognize that proposition I implies that firms distribute all their cash flow to shareholders without paying any attention to their retention policy. This paper constitutes a new extended proof of the MM theorem by not considering the hypothesis of earnings as fully distributed. We will show that it is possible to verify the theorem when we suppose an investor who e xchanges his initial holding for a mix of consumption and investment. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in the next section, we demonstrate the irrelevance of the MMs capital structure irrelevance when earnings are not fully distributed. We propose the possibility of extending of the MM theorem. Furthermore, we show that the two firms are not forced to distribute their full earnings; and the irrelevance is hold in the presence of the mix of investment and consumption. Section III describes the data set, introduces the methodology, examines the hypothesis of the variables and investigates whether the empirical Modigliani-Miller capital structure irrelevance is influenced by dividend payout ratio. Section IV provides some concluding remarks. 2. How do we reconcile MMs capital structure irrelevant theorem with the firms payout choice? 2.1 The failure of the MM theorem when earnings are not fully distributed. As indicated by Rubinstein (2003), the law of the conservation of investment value of MM(1958) was anticipated by many studies (Fisher (1930), Williams[5] (1938), Durand (1952); Morton (1954) for examples) but none of these authors have used arbitrage mechanism to prove the invariance of the cost of capital under changes in leverage. The MMs theorem demonstrates that under certain hypothesis of market conditions, the value of the firm is independent of its debt-equity ratio and is given by capitalizing the expected return generated by its assets. This model can be expressed as: for any firm j in class k (1) Where V stands for the market value of the firm, S for the market value of its common shares, D for the market value of its debts, X for its expected earnings before interest on its assets, for the capitalization rate appropriate to its class. The analysis of the MMs arbitrage steps shows the implicit hypothesis of full payout ratio which plays a crucial role in the model. The MMs capital structure irrelevance theorem constrains firms to distribute all of their earnings. In particular, we note that the validity of the proof developed by MM is based on this implicit assumption. MM(1958) consider (see MM(1958) pages 269-270 ) the return of the investor Y as a fraction of the net income available (X-rD for levered firm and X for unlevered firm) for the stockholders. (2) Where: is the return of the investor before arbitrage process, L is levered firm and U is Unlevred firm and is fraction of the total outstanding shares owned by the investor. Obviously, MM(1958) confuse artificially return of the investor(dividend return) and net income which should be distributed between dividend and retention. MM(1958 page 266) assert that the division of the stream between cash dividends and retained earnings in any period is a mere detail. When we derive the MM capital structure theorem for firms that are not distributing all their earnings as dividends, it follows a non-adequacy of the arbitrage operations, a non-proof of the irrelevance model. Table I shows the two cases used by MM(1958) when we introduce a level of payout different from 100%. Therefore, when we use the same arbitrage as MM(1958), we must then admit that the two firms distribute all the available income to verify the leverage irrelevance proposition. As will be shown later, this assumption can modify the validity of the MM theorem. To justify this thesis, we suppose the same steps of the MM first proposition but with a slight difference: here we suppose that firms are not constrained to distribute all of their earnings. This means that we introduce in the arbitrage reasoning the payout ratio (PR) as a new variable. Table I below shows that MM theorem is not verified. The difference between returns (before and after arbitrage operations) is not the same as showed by MM (1958). Table I. The irrelevance of the MM capital structure irrelevance when payout ratio is different from 100% First possibility  : VL VU Second possibility  : VU VL First stage  : the initial return of the investor YL Second Stage: Arbitrage process Sold his initial worth of the firm L Borrows an additional amount dL with the same interest rate r Acquired new shares of the firm u sold his initial worth of the firm U Acquired new shares of the firm L Acquired new bonds b of the firm L Third stage: the return of the investor YU Final stage: Difference of earnings ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Y= YU -YL Interpretations It is not possible to verify the MM results when we introduce the hypothesis of payout ratio different from 100%, the difference of returns will depend on the all components of the equation. When we pose PRL=PRU=1, it is easy to obtain the same difference of returns as MM(1958): or Notes: Using the MM formulation, we consider two firms L and U, for which the expected return is the same XL = XU = X. Company U is financed entirely by stock SU and company L by stock SL and debt D. The market value of each firm is then VU = SU and VL = SL + D, We denote PRL and PRU the payout ratios of the levered and unlevered firms (MM 1958 suppose PRL = PRU = 100% all expected return is distributed).sL =SL, sU =SU denote the value of shares owned respectively by an investor in the levered and unlevered firm with a fraction 2.2 The possibility of extension;The two firms are not obliged to distribute all their income: the mix of investment and consumption solution. The object of this secti on is to show that it is possible to demonstrate MMs proposition I without the hypothesis of earnings are fully distributed. In other words, we present an extension of the MM capital structure theorem for the case in which firms are allowed to have a payout policy. To prove this new proposition, we suppose the same hypothesis used by MM (1958), except that earnings are not fully distributed. Using the MM formulation, we consider two firms U, L for which the expected return is the same XL = XU = X. Company U is financed entirely by stock SU and company L by stock SL and debt D. The market value of each firm is then VU = SU and VL = SL + D. * Case 1: we suppose the value of the levered firm VL , to be greater than that of the Unlevered firm VU ( ). We denote respectively, PRL and PRU the payout ratios of the levered and unlevered firms (MM 1958 page 269) suppose PRL = PRU = 100% all expected return is distributed). First stage (initial return): consider an investor who owns sL dollars worth of the stock in the company L representing a fraction of the total outstanding shares SL, where sL= SL. His return YL can be written as: (3) The return from this portfolio, denoted by YL, will be a fraction of the income distributed for the stockholders of company L, which equals the multiplication of the payout ratio PRL by the difference between to total return X and the interest charge r DL. Where, r is the interest rate which the firm pays on its debt D. Second Stage (Arbitrage process): now suppose that an individual investor who adjusts his own personal leverage in order to increase his profits. He makes the following operations: (a ) Sold his worth sL of the company L and he divided it as follows: (i) he partially invested an amount IU = PRL.sL (which equals: IU=PRLSL) in acquiring shares (ii) he consumes the remainder CL= (1-PRL)SL. where sL= IU + CL . (b) Borrowed an additional amount . (c) Acquired an amount of the shares of the company U. He could so by using the amount IU from the sales of his initial holding and the amount d from borrowing. Third Stage (the new return): the income of the investor ((i) who holds sU dollars worth of the shares of the company U (ii) and who must pay interest of personal debt d would be: (4) Last Stage: Arbitrage profit: Comparing (4) with (3) we obtain: (5) Thus, under this approach we can distinguish two situations: First situation: If PRU= PRL = 1 then we find the same result as obtained by MM (1958 page 270). (6) Second situation: We can also verify the same result of MM(1958 page 270) without the hypothesis of PRU = PRL = 1, we can simply assume PRU = 1, while the payout ratio of the levered firm PRL is likely to vary between 0% and 100%, we get then: (7) From equation (7), we conclude that as long we must verify, so that it pays shareholders of corporation L to sell their investments, by this means decreasing SL and hence VL, and replace them wi th a mix of consumption and portfolio investment, which contains shares of the unlevered firm and personal debt, thereby growing SU and thus VU. This arbitrage process will be finished when equilibrium restores the stated equalities between the values of the two firms. * Case 2: we suppose the value of the unlevered firm VU , to be larger than that of the Levered one VL ( ). First stage: The return of the investor who holds sU dollars of shares of company U representing a fractionof the total outstanding stock SU . Where (8) The return from this portfolio denoted by YU will be a fraction of the income distributed to shareholders of the unlevered firm U. Second stage: suppose that the investor exchanges his initial holding in U by another portfolio in the levered firm L. The arbitrage process with consumption behaviour will take the following form: the investor sold his worth of company U: and divided it as follows: (i) He invested partially of the shares of the c ompany L (ii) He invested also of bonds of the company L (iii) The remainder will be consumed. From IL and IB , we can write respectively: Third stage: The return of the investor (i) who holds IL dollars worth of the shares of the company L (ii) and who holds IB dollars worth of bonds of the company L. (9) Last stage: Arbitrage profit: comparing YL (from 9) with YU (from 8) we obtain: (10) In order to get a profitable arbitrage opportunity for the investor, we must consider a positive difference of returns. Analysing equation (10), we can easily formulate two possibility of payout ratio: In the first, if we suppose a full earning model for the two firms (PRL = PRU = 1), therefore we will obtain the same results as showed by MM(1958) (page 270). According to this situation, equation (10) can be written as: (11) In the second, the MMs results can also be obtained if we just assume a full earnings for levered firm PRL= 1 while the payout ratio of the unlevered firm PRU is likely to vary between 0% and 100% implying that the firm can use a payout policy, which is not restricted to full earnings. Such a representation is written as: (12) In this context, it is also important to show that as we must obtain , hence it pays the shareholders of company U to sell their holdings and substitute them with a mix of consumption and portfolio investment, which contains shares and bonds. If, all investors in firm U will accomplish the three stages below, decrease the value of the unlevered firm U and increase the price of the levered firm L. This switching process will be over when equilibrium restores the stated equalities between the values of the two firms. From these demonstrations (case 1 and case 2) we can conclude that we are not compelled to suppose that the two firms distribute all of their returns. In other words we can make arbitrage process merely by considering that the overpriced firm (levered firm L in the first case a nd unlevered firm U in the second case) has a payout ratio PR which is not restricted to be 100% of the earnings. The table below summarizes the theoretical findings. Table II: the MMs arbitrage and the payout hypothesis Conditions Conclusions MMs arbitrage conditions without dividend payout MMs(1958) irrelevance theorem MMs arbitrage conditions with a payout ratio Failure of the MMs proof MMs arbitrage conditions with a payout ratio and consumption hypothesis Proof of the MMs irrelevance theorem(Extension) 3. The Empirical Analysis The previous part of this paper provides a new extension of the relationship between firm value and capital structure when the firm has a payout policy. In this section, we attempt some possible empirical tests. The central issue is, whether or not the leverage ratio affects firm value when earnings are not fully distributed?. Modigliani and Miller (1958) have taken two samples of 43 electric utilities during 1947-1948 and 42 oil companies during 1953. The data are provided respectively by two studies conducted by Allen (1954) and Smith (1955); and they estimated the weighted average cost of capital (wacc) according to the financial leverage of the firm. The regression form of the model was: (13) Where wacc is the weight cost of capital approximated by X /V , here X is the expected return net of taxes, V is the market value of all securities and the financial leverage of the firm measured by the ratio D/V, where D is the market value of Bonds and preferred stock. The resul ts of the tests (as shown MM(1958page 282) are favourable to Modigliani and Miller (1958)s hypothesis. The values of the correlations coefficients are small and not statistically significant. Weston (1963) criticizes Modigliani-Miller empirical result. In particular, he assumes that the lack of effect of capital structure on the overall value of the firm is due to deficiency of the approach to take account of other factors that may be influencing the firms cost of capital. Contrary to MM, the author shows in the empirical tests that leverage is correlated negatively with firm value in the presence of the hypothesis of earnings growth. 3.1 Data and Methodology In order to conduct an empirical analysis similar to MMs, we have collected data on the same sectors from the same country as done by Modigliani and Miller 1958. The data we use are annual standardized financial information of US firms observed in the period 1990-1998. Our sample is formed by two sub samples: from the Electric sector we use 256 companies, and from the oil sector we take 223 companies. These data were obtained from the Worldscope Database (SIC Code 13 and 49). Contrary to Weston(1963), we consider the hypothesis of risk-class can be verified in the oil industry and the electric sector (as supposed by MM 1958). According to MM(1958), a linear model was constructed to explain the relationship between leverage and the firm value. The variables used in our regressions are constructed (see table III) as the same way as presented by these authors. The corresponding models used by MM(1958) are: For Model 1 :see MM(1958) page284 (note 38), for model 2,see MM(1958) page28 2; For Model 3,see MM(1958) page284 (note 39); For. With regard to the basic capital structure irrelevance theorem to be estimated; we propose three regression models as follows: Model 1: (14) Model 2: (15) Model 3: (16) Where wacc is the weighted average cost of capital; Leverage 1: first measure of leverage; ML1: modified leverage 1; Value: the ratio of the firm value; , ER: earnings ratio; DR debt ratio. The purpose of model 1 is to test the effect of leverage (as measured by Debt ratio DR) on firm value, while the Model 2 and model 3 test the effect of leverage (measured by Leverage1) on the cost of capital (measured by WACC). The variable ML1(modified leverage 1) is included in model3 to test the U-shaped hypothesis that the coefficient e of this variable should be significant and positive to confirm the traditional view, and not significantly different from zero to confirm the irrelevance theorem.. Note also that according to our approach the correlation between these variables should be different from zero. To test the validity of the MMs proposition when earnings are not fully distributed, we alternatively estimate all the above regressions in the absence (model MM58 and the model MM58supp) and the presence of the payout ratio. We validate this last alternative in two steps: In the first step, we test the models for all firms (model MMExt). In the second step, we test the models for subsamples: First Quartile sample (Firms Payout ratio is less than 25%), Second Quartile sample (firms payout ratio is between 25% and 50%), Third Quartile sample (firms payout ratio is between 50% and 75%), and Fourth Quartile sample (firms payout ratio is more than 75%). The tableIII below reports the different measures of variables and their predicted effects. Table III. Measures of variables and predicted signs Variables Symbol Measure MM Hypothesis Our Hypothesis Dependants variables Weighted average cost of capital WACC X/V Firm value ratio Value V/A The explanatory variables First measure of leverage Leverage 1 D/V Zero effect Significant effect Modified Leverage 1 measure ML1 D.D/V.S Zero effect Significant effect Earnings ratio ER X/A Debt ratio DR D/A Zero effect Significant effect Payout ratio Payout Div/NI Not tested Significant effect Notes: the table reports the different measures of variables where V: firm value= market value of equity S +market value of debt D, X: Earnings before interest and Taxes (EBIT), A: is the value of the total assets, NI net income. ML1 modified leverage 1 measure = (D/V) ²/(1-D/V). We measure the value of the Debt D by the amount of total liabilities. 3.2 Descriptive statistics As indicated in Table IV, the descriptive statistics shows that the average value of cost of capital is 5.92% for electric utilities and 4.48% for oil companies[6]. On average, we have a leverage ratio of 51.79%(37.85%), this measure is 62% (50.2%) when we use total assets as deflator . The average firm has a value ratio of 1,38 for electric utilities which is much weaker than those of oil companies (1,99). For these firms, earnings ratio ranges from 0% to 2.7% for electric utilities (0% to 66% for oil companies). In terms of net income, the average value of payout is more important for electric utilities (45%) ranging from 0% to 99,9%, than those of oil companies (16%). These results show that the division of the stream between cash dividend and retained earnings in any period is not a mere detail as supposed by Modigliani and Miller (1958 page 266). None of firms in the two samples and during the whole period (1990-1998) has distributed the totality of its income. For the normal distribution of the series around the mean (see table IV), all of the distributions of the variables are not symmetric since their skewness values are different from zero. This conclusion is also verified by the values of the Kurtosis which are quite different from 3. Table IV. Descriptive Statistics of Variables (256 Electric Utilities and 223 Oil Companies) Variables Sample Mean Minimum Maximum Std. Dev Skewness Kurtosis Obs WACC Elect 0.05924 0.00000 0.29090 0.03188 0.292328 6.376099 2304 Oil 0.04481 0.00000 0.69582 0.05448 4.75993 42.0526 2007 Leverage1 Elect 0.51796 0.01573 0.99416 0.17873 -0.46925 3.36365 2304 Oil 0.37857 0.0000 0.98237 0.21714 0.20952 2.36431 2007 Value Elect 1.38155 0.09087 9.77112 0.82268 5.51989 45.7871 2304 Oil 1.99172 0.14447 138.56 5.40308 18.7716 397.615 2006 ER Elect 0.07353 0.0000 0.027612 0.04158 0.77790 7.94274 2304 Oil 0.06418 0.0000 0.664303 0.06683 2.104262 11.546 2007 DR Elect 0.62322 0.02761 0.995066 0.14891 -0.9991 4.78983 2304 Oil 0.50220 0.0000 0.9978 0.22065 -0.2593 2.4847 2006 ML1 Elect 1.34913 0.000252 169.346 6.6480 17.3645 344.950 2304 Oil 0.61298 0.0000 23.2454 1.5346 8.6309 103.96 2006 Payout Elect 0.45169 0.00000 0.99980 0.35978 -0.15569 1.40417 2304 Oil 0.16381 0.0000 0.9991 0.27721 1.50967 3.90646 2006 3.3 The effect of Leverage on the firm value (model 1) The MM(1958)s theorem is confronted with our hypothesis in order to know the crucial effect of payout ratio on the sensitivity of firm value to leverage. If our prediction is true, we should find a significant coefficient of leverage ratio, otherwise the MMs view should be confirmed. As indicated in table V, estimates result shows that coefficients of earning ratio (ER) and debt ratio (DR) are significantly different from zero, which fails to support the MMs view. Since our results, as presented below, demonstrate that the coefficient of debt ratio is significantly negative and contrary to the traditional view. We prefer to give more explanations of this relationship based on the presence of the payout policy. The latter has a negative influence on the two samples (see Model MMExt , table V) which is in the opposite direction as obtained by the cost of capital regressions (see tableVI). There are two main explanations for this result: According to Brigham and Gordon(1968), the r elationship between stock price and leverage depends on the association between R (return on assets and investment) and i ( the rate of interest which the firm pays on its debt), not on the level of Leverage L. This can be written as: (16) Where E is the book value of the common equity per share, k is the rate at which dividend is discounted. It is evident, when R is less than i, the leverage effect on stock price P will be negative. Furthermore, the negative influence of the dividend ratio on the firm value confirms the leverage impact when the return on investment is less than the cost of debt. This means that firms experiencing lower rate of investment tend to use funds from internal and external resources to display higher payout ratio. The leverage measure is not the same: in Wacc regression, this variable is measured by debt on firm value (D/V), while in firm value regression (Value), the debt ratio is measured by debt on total Assets (D/A). The fact that both variabl es are divided by different deflators may be affected by a random disturbances of the market value of the firm. This bias correlation is not observed in the firm value regression. According to Modigliani and Miller (1958), the constant term in the previous regression should give more information on the value of the unlevered firm. As shown in table IV below, the estimated coefficient of this variable is not only significantly different from zero, but is quite positive and greatly relative to the coefficient of the debt ratio. This conclusion is confirmed for the two samples with large values for the oil companies. Table IV. Directs Pooled Least-Squares Estimates of the effects of leverage on the firm value Coefficients of Regressions Sample Constant ER DR Payout AdR ² Obs MM 58 Elect 1.893a -0.158a -0.805a 0.025 2304 Oil 2.464a -6.730a -0.668 0.048 2007 MM Ext Elect 1.963a -0.131a -0.466a -0.625a 0.095 2304 Oil 2.465a -6.703a -0.642 -0.086 0.048 2007 First Quartile Elect 1.969a -0.133b -0.412c 0.005 801 Oil 2.342a -7.490a -0.286 0.052 1440 Second Quartile Elect 1.465a 2.650a -0.554a 0.187 216 Oil 1.659a -0.197 -0.501a 0.033 279 Third Quartile Elect 1.206a 1.823a -0.249a 0.096 738 Oil 1.224a 3.229a -0.055 0.113 207 Fourth Quartile Elect 1.080a 1.809a -0.105 0.102 549 Oil 7.197a 0.983 -9.064a 0.676 72 Notes: a, b and c indicate significance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% levels respectively. 3.4 The effect of leverage on the cost of capital (model 2 and Model 3) According to Modigliani and Millers proposition I: the average cost of capital Wacc (Xt/V) should tend to have the same value independently of the degree of leverage MM (1958, page281). In other words, the leverages coefficient parameter in the Wacc regression should be insignificant and statistically equal to zero. The results of the MM model tests are shown in table V (models: MM58 and MM58supp). According to this table, the MM hypothesis is only verified in the oil sample, while leverage in the electric utilities has a negative and significant effect (coefficient is equal -0, 1162) on the cost of capital. In accordance with MM model, the fact of adding another measure in the WACC regression (ML1 in MM58supp)) is clearly favourable to MM hypothesis. The coefficients of leverage 1 in the two samples are close to zero and not significant(-0.056 for electric sample and 0.021 for oil firms). While, the modified leverage ML1 is significant and negatively correlated with the cost of ca pital (respectively -0.013 and -0.009 for electric and oil firms). This result is the same as obtained by Modigliani and Miller (1958 page 284 note 39) where they interpret it as the reverse of the traditional view. When we introduce the hypothesis of payout as not fully distributed in the previous analysis, the correlation between leverage 1 and the cost of capital is significantly negative and quite different from zero (The results of these tests are shown in table V, see Model MMExt,). This result is consistent with our hypothesis (we expect a significant influence of leverage on the cost of capital) and contradicts the validity of the irrelevance theorem. Furthermore, this result is confirmed in six out of eight tests conducted on the sub-samples: First Quartile, Second Quartile, Third Quartile and FourthQuartile. Unlike Modigliani and Miller (1958), dividend policy is an important factor that explains the relationship between leverage and the firms cost of capital. The es timations provide evidence for a decreasing cost of capital as the leverage ratio increases. It is significant to note also that according to Modigliani and Miller (1958), the constant terms of the regressions equations are measures of the cost of capital of Unlevered firms in the same risk-class. The estimates for the electric utilities and oil companies show that these costs are close to an accepted critical rate. Additional tests were also conducted to assess the relevance of the variable ML1, which is supposed to take into account the curvilinear effect of the leverage on the cost of capital. Our results suggest (table V) that the U-shaped relationship between these variables is not observed and the data provide no evidence of the traditional view. Although the variable ML1 has the same sign as indicated by MM(1958 page 284), the tests show that for both industries the coefficients are significantly different from zero. Table V. Directs Pooled Least-Squares Estimates of the effects of leverage on the cost of capital Regressions Sample constant Leverage1 ML1 Payout Adj.R ² Obs MM 58(model1) Elect 0.117a -0.116a 0.006 2304 Oil 0.020a -0.018 0.0003 2007 MM 58 Supp(model 2) Elect 0.098a -0.056 -0.013b 0.007 2304 Oil 0.011 0.021 -0.009a 0.007 2007 MM Ext (model 1with dividend payout ratio) Elect 0.111a -0.156a 0.059a 0.012 2304 Oil 0.014a -0.050a 0.107a 0.042 2007 First Quartile Elect 0.142a -0.236a 0.014 801 Oil 0.019a -0.064a 0.008 1440 Second Quartile Elect 0.053a 0.006 0.001 216 Oil 0.003 0.110a 0.033 279 Third Quartile Elect 0.083a -0.026a 0.012 738 Oil 0.045a 0.018 0.002 207 Fourth Quartile Elect 0.093a -0.038a 0.031 549 Oil 0.136a -0.196b 0.052 72 Note: a, b, and c indicate significance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% levels respectively. According to our results (see table v), when dividend payout ratio is different from 100% , the cost of capital (wacc)should vary significantly with the ratio of financial structure as measured by D/V. This relationship tends to be linear and with negative (or positive) slope. As shown in figure1 below the effect of D/V on wacc could take the forms indicated by the different straight lines. The downward sloping part of the curve depends on the level of payout ratio and the firms risk [7]. The analysis of the evolution of the debt ratio coefficient for each level of payout shows that the company should not remain indifferent to the choice of financial structure. Based on the firms payout policy, it is possible to minimize the cost of capital through a judicious adjustment of capital structure. The results of the estimations of these variables show that the company can borrow (bot h sectors) when the payout is low (PYR 0.25) or High (PYR 0.75), while a moderate policy of dividend (0.5 PYR 0.75) leads us to analyze the risk of the firm. In fact, when firms risk is low (like electric utilities), financing projects with debt is advantageous for shareholder wealth. However, if the level of risk is higher (like oil companies), borrowing is not beneficial and the firm should seek another cheaper financial instrument than debt. In addition to the previous theoretical and empirical results, it is possible to summarize our findings as follows (see table VI). The Table below also compares our approach (partial payout model ) with the MMs capital structure irrelevance model (full payout model). Table VI. Capital structure irrelevance theorem: full versus partial payout Models Irrelevance Model MM(1958)  : (full payout model) Our Extension of MMs Model: (Partial payout model) Main conclusion Capital structure is irrelevant only with a full payout ratio condition. Pay-out ratio plays a crucial effect in explaining the relationship between capital structure and firm value. Key Assumption for capital structure Analysis Arbitrage model with perfect market conditions. Arbitrage model with perfect market conditions. Implied restrictions Firm is restricted to choose among payout policies that which distributes all feasible earning. Firm is not compelled to distribute all earnings as dividends. Characteristics of capital structure Analysis Investment in shares and Bonds. Borrowing Investment in shares and Bonds. Borrowing Consumption Empirical tests and results Correlation between firm value and leverage is not significantly different from zero Correlation coefficient between firm value and leverage is statistically significant 4. Concluding Remarks The MM theorem addresses the following question: what is the link between a firms financial decisions and its total stock market value?. According to Bailey (2010), the answer to this matter lies at the heart of corporate finance and it may be paradoxical that the MM theorems provide circumstances under which financial decisions are irrelevant in determining its value. This paper has provided theoretical and empirical evidence of the importance of payout policy in explaining the relationship between leverage and the firm value. MMs capital structure irrelevance theorem implicitly and artificially uses the assumption 100% FCF payout, thereby forcing firms to consider only among payout ratios which distribute all the income available for the stockholders in every period. This constraint means that shareholders are indifferent towards dividends and retained earnings and leads to the absurd conclusion that common stock must always sell at book value[8]. The theoretical part of the p aper constitutes a new extended proof of the MM theorem by relaxing the hypothesis of earnings as fully distributed. We have shown that it is possible to verify the theorem when we suppose an investor who exchanges his initial holding by a mix of consumption and investment in another portfolio. The proof shows that we are not compelled to suppose that the two firms distribute all of their returns. As a consequence, we can make an arbitrage process merely by considering that unlevered (or levered) firm has such payout ratio. In the empirical analysis, the paper tested the MM theorem after allowing earnings as not fully distributed. Estimates results show a correlation coefficient between firm value and leverage statistically significant, different from zero and fails to support the MMs view. The downward sloping part of the linear relationship between the cost of capital and leverage depends on the level of the payout ratio adopted by the firm. The limitations of this study should again be emphasised. In the empirical analysis, we did not rely on variables related to market imperfections[9] to test the robustness of our results, but simply proposed a model to test the validity of the MMs view and to show the importance of the payout policy in resolving the capital structure Puzzle. Still, we believe that our approach may give some useful ideas for further research. As MM(1958) conclude having served their purpose they can now be relaxed in the direction of greater realism and relevance, a task in which we hope others interested in this area will wish to share. Notes As Modigliani (1989) notes  «Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  The MM paper is unquestionably the most popular of my writings, primarily because it has been, and continues to be, required reading for many graduate business schools.  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ » F Modigliani (1989) p149-158 For a detailed comparison between MM theorem and the traditional approach, see Weston (1963) p105-107. Except for the tax-effect factor(MM1963, Graham 2010) Brealy and Myers, 2003; Copeland and Weston, 1992; Ross, Westerfield and Jaffee 2005, among others In his book the theory of investment value (1938), Williams writes, Furthermore no change in the investment value of the enterprise as a whole would result from a change in its capitalization. Bonds could be retired with stock issues, or two classes of junior securities could be combined into one without changing the investment value of the company as a whole. pp 72-73, cited by Rubinstein (2003). The extreme values (very low or very high) obtained from descri ptive statistics are due to the proxy used in the study. According to MM (1958), we have measured the cost of capital by dividing earnings on the firm value. According to Weston(1963), due to the uncertainty in their activity, the difference between Electrical Utility industry and firms in the oil industry is the class risk. For the former risk is low while for the latter risk is high and heterogeneous. DeAngelo and DeAngelo (2006) argue that MMs point of view on the irrelevance dividend policy is not true because their model constraints the firm to distribute 100% of its FCF in every period. Distributions below the totality of the earnings are ruled out by the implicit hypothesis Especially, income taxes, bankruptcy costs, agency costs, and asymmetric information.

Cloud Computing Essay - 860 Words

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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

History of Social Divisions in Society and the Role of the...

Power and powerlessness go hand in hand as to have one the other must exist. As society is not egalitarian and never shall be, there will always be inequalities. These inequalities can be on both personal and structural levels. To enable us to understand power and social work we must firstly understand the theoretical explanation of the distribution of power, privilege, prestige and powerlessness within western society by looking at social divisions, class and their positions within society. Marx was interested in the theories of economic development, he believed that economy was dominated by agriculture and power was held by the aristocratic landowner, in the period when manufacture was the dominant mode of production which he called†¦show more content†¦Marx clearly believed that social stratification is an objective reality, which follows inevitably from the process of economic change. 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Cry, the Beloved Country, by Alan Paton Essay examples

Cry, the Beloved Country, by Alan Paton, is the timeless novel about South Africa in the 1940’s. As powerful white men use the land for their own benefit, the tribal system of the African natives is broken down and replaced by poverty, homelessness, fear, and violence. A black priest, Stephen Kumalo, ventures to the great city of Johannesburg in search of his lost sister and son. His journey demonstrates the unhealthy lifestyle and mutinous atmosphere of the black people; yet he is the beholder of forgiveness, love, hope, and the restoration of a country overwhelmed with problems. The blacks in big cities, such as Johannesburg, are fearful of white men because they have all the power. They own the mines and factories, and make and carry†¦show more content†¦So I shot him. I did not mean to kill him.’†(Pg. 98) When so many white people are being killed by blacks, it can only increase the fear felt by both races: blacks because they do not wish to procure any trouble, and whites because they do not want to be the next victim. By not sacrificing power, the whites are bringing this fear upon themselves. â€Å"And our lives will shrink, but they shall be the lives of superior beings; and we shall live with fear, but at least it will not be a fear of the unknown.†(Pg. 79) The question is: how long can this unstable and superficial lifestyle endure before the dawn of a new equity? Future generations will have to deal with these issues which are left unsolved by a power hungry nation. And if problems are left unsettled for too long, hatred may establish a permanent residence in South Africa. 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Ensuring Containment of Cyber and Assurance

Question: How Human Behavior can be Applied as one of the aspect in Ensuring Containment of Cyber and Assurance? Answer: Introduction Information security administration has become essentially in the course of the most recent 25 years what's more, is presently a typical and consistent thing inside people in general space. With buzz words, for example, hacking and digital security being incorporated inside features and being a typical point of discussion among regular innovation clients; data security is at the forefront of individuals' psyches (Ahmad, Maynard and Park 2014). The National Initiative for Cyber security Careers and Studies characterizes digital security inside its glossary as process, capacity , then again state whereby data and interchanges frameworks and the data contained in that are shielded from or potentially guarded against harm, unapproved utilize or alteration, or abuse. This article is assembled in view of ebb and flow inquires about related to digital security confirmation and the effect of the human component on information. The target of this work is to distinguish components of digital security that would profit by further research and improvement in light of the writing audit discoveries (Ahmad, Maynard and Park 2014). The comes about plot in this article introduce a requirement for the digital security field to look into set up industry regions to profit by powerful rehearses for example, human dependability evaluation along with enhanced techniques for approval, for example, measurable quality control with a specific end goal to get genuine confirmation. The article proposes the improvement of a system that will be in view of characterize and repeatable evaluation which predominantly relating to the compass of individual aspect activities that give, or are designed not to contrarily manipulate by cyber security acts. Theoretical background and literature review There have been huge volumes of genuine human services related information breaks regardless of the presentation of the Information Governance Toolkit (IGT) with over seven thousand two hundred and fifty five users. NHS information ruptures in the vicinity of year 2014 and 2011 demonstrating a pattern of volume increments whereby there was a 101 percent expansion from the year 2013 to the year 2014 (Blyth and Kovacich 2011). Outside of the Australia as a country the pattern continues with unexpected presentation of private or delicate data being 83% higher for social insurance associations than different ventures however the most minimal performing industry in episode reaction . Dunn likewise detailed that 93% of ruptures were expected to human mistake and 95% of information misfortune in the country is expected to contain social elements of individuals (Blyth and Kovacich 2011). The Government 2015 security breaks overview found that there had been an expansion in the quantity of security breaks from 81% of extensive associations to 90% indicating why security breaks are seen to proceed and be a normal component of business now and later on that can't be totally destroyed. The overview additionally recognized that about 9 out of 10 vast associations reviewed now languish some over of security break proposing that these episodes are presently a close conviction (Blyth and Kovacich 2016). The report likewise expressed that organizations ought to guarantee they are overseeing the hazard in like manner, and in spite of the expansion in staff mindfulness preparing, individuals are as prone to bring about a break as infections and different sorts of pernicious programming. Strikingly the overview found that levels of security mindfulness conveyed had gone up contrasted with the earlier year despite the fact that staff related breaks had additionally risen. The stu dy demonstrated that 72% of expansive associations now convey continuous security mindfulness preparing to their staff contrasted and 68% the earlier year (Clevestig 2009). This highlights that just pushing out standard security mindfulness data to the representatives of an association is not an impassive methods for digital security affirmation in connection to human conduct. Confirmation Definition As indicated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, affirmation is characterized as being 'Justification for certainty that the other four security objectives; Respectability, accessibility, classification, and responsibility have been satisfactorily improvement by a specific usage (Clevestig 2009). Accordingly, having that as a main priority, it is troublesome for capable individuals dwelling at the highest point of the hierarchical progressive system, for example, Chief Official Officers, Boards, Managing Directors, Owners and Senior Managers to have certainty or ensure that the data that their individual association is in charge of handling is satisfactorily secured. This issue has been aggravated by the change of wording utilized throughout the years including usage of the term confirmation inaccurately where it is really alluding to the supporting controls or countermeasures being connected. CESG distinguished four components of affirmation inside a confirmation display (Dilek, ak?r and Ayd?n 2015). These four components were inborn affirmation, extraneous confirmation, execution as assurance and operational affirmation. In light of the distributed digital security occurrences and breaks in the ranges of operational affirmation and outward confirmation inside the field of digital security this article will concentrate on those regions. CESG characterizes open levelheaded confirmation as the exercises important to keep up the item, framework or administration's security usefulness once it has entered operational utilize (Evans, Maglaras and Janicke 2016). Outward affirmation is additionally characterized as any movement autonomous of the improvement condition which provides a level of trust in the item, framework or administration. Affirmation Strategies There is by all accounts a present position inside normal guidelines whereby security affirmation programs should be adaptable and require the association to figure out what needs to be checked and the technique for observing as expressed inside statements 9.1a and 9.1b by the English Standards Institution . Standard affirmation exercises have been static for quite a while and not advanced at the pace of innovation and digital security (Blyth and Kovacich 2016). It is fundamental to have a lithe security confirmation structure set up to address the issues of contrasting associations and bodies. Be that as it may, the present structures are extremely wide and notwithstanding being in presence for some time does not seem, by all accounts, to be completely tending to digital security particular affirmation necessities as the ruptures and measurements laid out in this article have appeared (Evans, Maglaras and Janicke 2016) . Human behavior This study proposes that human conduct is not steady and can be emphatically affected by connections, there is likewise a general gullible conviction that terrible things as it were happen to other individuals (Holstein and Stouffer 2010). Look into likewise found that individuals were eager to attempt unsafe practices (Holstein and Stouffer 2010). People were really rewarded as they were viewed as accommodating for permitting an occasion to occur without applying security controls or rehearse. Amid the writing audit investigate into different parts of affirmation and human conduct was likewise explored. These included the utilization of dread interests and furthermore client impressions of hazardous conduct relating to PC security. Fear as one of the elements offers are influential interchanges that incorporate a component of dread keeping in mind the end goal to get a result wanted by administration. A positive fear ring would propel a danger control handle which can incite a productive outcome as the message recipient grasps a mental methodology to dismiss a hazard (Liu 2012). Fear offers are by and large used inside human administrations and promoting, for instance, to propel threatening Tosmo ruler. Johnston and Warkentin also laid out a Fear Appeals Model (FAM) intertwining parts, for instance, saw chance reality, and saw risk shortcoming, response sufficiency, self ampleness, social effect which then prompts behavioral purpose (Liu 2012). Johnston and Warkentin also communicates that the audit helps the routine of information security organization by revealing the characteristic dangers of customer self-administration and that end customers are not dependable in their practices which approach to manage ad vanced security care and get ready does not offer adequate confirmation. A view that is moved around the present scene estimations highlighted before in this article (Ahmad, Maynard and Park 2014). Furthermore associated with the human direct some portion of advanced security, was the endeavor of risky lead whereby people would grasp activity despite a known danger related with the movement (Liu 2012). Johnston likewise, Warkentin express that individuals show a fairly guileless conviction that loathsome things simply happen to different people and Aytes Connolly commented that the self picture of present day, security astute customers does not track to a great degree well with their readiness and certified practices. Likewise, there is an especially entrancing thought included by Aytes and Connolly which communicated: Most by a wide margin of the time, customers can share passwords, open email associations without checking them for diseases, and so forth, with any negative outcomes. They are in truth repaid in this lead, since they are either seen as strong in the occasion of sharing passwords or they save time by not checking for diseases (Blyth and Kovacich 2011). In connection to the dread interest system highlighted inside this article, it has been demonstrated that dread interests in detachment don't give powerful or sufficient affirmation, according to its definition and associations ought not to depend upon this kind of system. The message could be misjudged, overlooked or even disregarded in view of recognitions, connections and social impact. Hence, this approach ought to be utilized as a cautioning mechanism just and keeping in mind the end goal to present affirmation obliges criticism to the dread interest sender to affirm consistence. This could be a return affirmation message, filter, appraisal, report, test or review. A decent relationship here would be the utilization of TCP in computer systems administration to affirm/ensure conveyance as set out later in this article (Maglaras et.al 2016). Characterized affirmation is fundamental for powerful data security administration as Aytes and Connolly express: The discoveries recommend that it is impossible that PC clients will essentially change their conduct because of basically being furnished with extra data with respect to figuring dangers and hone. It is likely that associations should authorize consistence when the dangers warrant data extract (Maglaras et.al 2016). Research gaps There are several research gaps that can be deduced from the previous study. These gaps should be utilized in the recent study in order to expand past literature. The previous literature does not cover various cover various teenage behavior which results into the increased cyber crimes (Theoharidou et.al 2015). The behavior of the youthful individuals totally varies from adults who own various firms and may not have extreme behaviors increasing the rate of cyber security issues. It is evident that most of the cyber security offenders are youths. The current research should therefore cover the relationship between teenage behaviors and the cyber security breach. Another research gap in the management of information risk and security is how unemployment results into an increased cyber crime. With reference to various publications most of the cyber crimes are related to unemployment where most of the people committing these cyber crimes are unemployed. This current research should therefore capture the relation between the behaviors of jobless individuals (Theoharidou et.al 2015). Possibility of expanding existing literature Based on the increasing number of data breaches and cyber crimes, there is possibility of conducting an extensive research (Stallings and Brown 2008). There are several cyber security incidents which have occurred even with the available literatures and studies suggesting the need to expand the past studies. The gaps in the previous part above also suggest the need to expand the previous study in order to cover all the aspects related to human elements and cyber security breaches. It is possible to expand the literature to cover all the aspects relate to human behavior and human information risk management (Stallings and Brown 2008). The available literature can be expanded to cover the behavior of unemployed individuals and how teenage behavior results in to cyber crimes as well as how the situation can be controlled. Possible research questions What is the relationship between human behavior and the increasing cyber security breaches? How can a formal assurance relating to human behavior be created in order to set out various ways that can be used to contain cyber crimes? What should companies do in order to cub increasing cyber attacks on various firms within various industries? Can human behavior be modified to ensure reduced cyber security breaches and create assurance? Summary As portrayed out inside this article, affiliations and society continue being affected by both general and practically identical computerized security breaks. These cracks identify with specific executions and what's more normal treatment of private electronic information. Disregarding this extent of activities, it has been shown that half of these have human mix-up at their middle. In this manner, there should be extended test and theoretical research into human practices in connection to computerized security in perspective of the volumes of human mistake related scenes with a particular ultimate objective to set up courses in which standard advanced security practice can benefit and data very much oversaw. This article has shown that there is further research required into digital security affirmation and evaluation in connection to human components to build up a viable confirmation or assurance structure. This approach would profit the field of cyber security as a typical useable arrangement is not right now accessible and associations are depending upon autonomous aptitudes and information of people. It is suggested that a particular system is created in light of characterized and repeatable measurement particularly identifying with the scope of human viewpoint assignments that give, or are expected not to contrarily influence digital security act. Strategies that this structure ought to be based upon incorporate human unwavering quality appraisal, measurable quality control and a digital security human angle helplessness scoring framework. All in all, the digital security group ought to proceed to advance and grow yet it must not overlook its foundations and the undeniable insights that demonstrate we have not yet tended to the dangers related with the one steady component of digital security in relation to all aspects of human behavior. References Ahmad, A., Maynard, S.B. and Park, S., 2014. Information security strategies: towards an organizational multi-strategy perspective. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 25(2), pp.357-370. Blyth, A. and Kovacich, G.L., 2011. What is Information Assurance?. In Information Assurance (pp. 3-16). Springer London. Blyth, A. and Kovacich, G.L., 2016. What is Information Assurance? (pp. 3-15). Springer London. Clevestig, P., 2009. Handbook of applied biosecurity for life science laboratories. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Stockholms internationella fredsforskningsinstitut)(SIPRI). Dilek, S., ak?r, H. and Ayd?n, M., 2015. Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Combating Cyber Crimes: A Review. arXiv preprint arXiv:1502.03552. Evans, M., Maglaras, L.A., He, Y. and Janicke, H., 2016. Human behaviour as an aspect of cybersecurity assurance. Security and Communication Networks, 9(17), pp.4667-4679. Holstein, D.K. and Stouffer, K., 2010, January. Trust but verify critical infrastructure cyber security solutions. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2010 43rd Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE. Liu, P., 2012. Architectures for intrusion tolerant database systems. In Computer Security Applications Conference, 2002. Proceedings. 18th Annual (pp. 311-320). IEEE. Maglaras, L., He, Y., Janicke, H. and Evans, M., 2016. Human Behaviour as an aspect of Cyber Security Assurance. Stallings, W. and Brown, L., 2008. Computer security. Principles and Practice. Theoharidou, M., Kokolakis, S., Karyda, M. and Kiountouzis, E., 2015. The insider threat to information systems and the effectiveness of ISO17799. Computers Security, 24(6), pp.472-484.